Essay on Social Control Theory vs. Social Learning Theory | Bartleby


social control theory essay

Sep 18,  · This is a free Essay on Control Theory of Crime. We are the leading provider of affordable essay writing services in the United States and the United Kingdom. If you need help we will write well written Essay on Control Theory of Crime at very affordable costs starting at $/ Online Help For Students. Social Control Theory vs. Social Learning Theory. Abstract Social control theory and social learning theory are two theories that suggest why deviant behavior is chosen to be acted upon by some individuals and not others. Essay The Social Of Social Control Theory. Out of all the sociological and psychological theories listed in chapter 2 of our textbook, I think the social control theory has the most merit. The theory is based on four components of social bond. These components are what keep people from committing crimes.

Hirschi Social Control Theory Essay Example

This sample Social Control Theory of Crime Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Like other free research paper examples, it is not a custom research paper. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our custom writing services and buy a paper on any of the criminal justice social control theory essay paper topics.

The social control approach to understanding crime is one of the three major sociological perspectives in contemporary criminology.

Control theorists believe that conformity to the rules of society is produced by socialization and maintained by ties to people and institutions— to family members, friends, schools, and jobs. As social bonds increase in strength, the costs of crime to the individual increase as well.

The intellectual roots of social control theory reach back several centuries, social control theory essay, but it was not until the middle of the 20th century that this theory began to generate broad interest among crime researchers. Since then, it has been among the most frequently tested in the scientific literature and has garnered substantial empirical support.

Its research and policy implications have generated perhaps the most debate of any modern theory of crime. The influence of social control theory on actual crime control policy has been less impressive. Social control theories do not support expansion of the criminal justice system. They do not favor larger police forces or lengthy incarceration as crime control policies.

They favor instead policies designed to establish stronger bonds between individuals and society. The first task of the control theorist is to identify the important elements of the bond to society, social control theory essay.

The second task is to say what is meant by society—to locate the persons and institutions important in the control of delinquent and criminal behavior. The following list of elements of the bond— attachment, commitment, involvement, social control theory essay, and belief—has proved useful in explaining the logic of the theory and in summarizing relevant research.

It has also provided guidelines for evaluation of delinquency prevention programs, social control theory essay. Social control theory assumes that people social control theory essay see the advantages of crime and are capable of inventing and executing all sorts of criminal acts on the spot—without special motivation or prior training. It assumes that the impulse to commit crime is resisted because of the costs associated with such behavior.

It assumes further that a primary cost of crime is the disapproval of the people about whom the potential offender cares. To the extent that the potential offender cares about no one, he or she is free to commit the crime in question. Sociologists often explain conformity as the result of such sensitivity. Psychologists as often explain deviation as the result of insensitivity to the concerns of others.

Together, they tell us that sensitivity is a continuum and that some people have more than others and some have less than others. This is the position adopted by control theorists. They focus on the extent to which people are sensitive to the opinion of others and predict that this variable will predict rates of crime and delinquency.

Sensitivity suggests feeling or emotion, and this element of the social bond indeed attempts to capture the emotions or lack thereof involved in conformity and deviance. The words are many: affection, love, concern, care, and respect, to name only some. Social control theorists use attachment as an abstract summary of these concepts. The evidence is clear that family attachments are strongly correlated with non delinquency. In their famous book Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency, social control theory essay, Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck indicated that, social control theory essay, according to their research, affection of the father and the mother for the child were two of the best five predictors of delinquency.

They found, too, that in the other direction, the emotional ties of the child to the parent tended to be weaker among delinquents. From this, we may conclude that family attachments play a role in the socialization of the child as well as in maintaining his or her subsequent conformity to the rules of society.

Researchers have reported that family attachments may account for the apparent effects of other variables. These correlations are of course taken as evidence of the importance of parental supervision. They are better seen as evidence of the importance of communication between parent and child. Scandinavian scholars have shown that parents know where their children are to the extent that their children inform them of their whereabouts.

In other words, well-supervised children are those who supervise themselves, those who in effect take their parents with them wherever they happen to go. Attachment to school is also a well-established predictor of delinquency, social control theory essay. Students who report liking school and caring about the opinion of teachers are far less likely to be delinquent regardless of how delinquency is measured, social control theory essay.

Rebels and revolutionaries may dispute this principle, but that says nothing about the element of truth it contains and they prove it by their actions. Everyone seems to understand the paraphrased social control theory essay lyric that freedom is another way of saying that one has nothing left to lose. Control theory captures this idea in the concept of commitment, the idea that conforming behavior protects and preserves capital, whereas crime and delinquency put it at risk.

The potential delinquent calculates the costs and benefits of crime. The more he or she has to lose, the greater the potential costs of the crime and the less likely it is to be committed.

What does one lose or risk losing from crime? The short answer is life, liberty, and property. For young people in American society, the main arena for the display of accomplishment or achievement is the school.

Athletics aside, and however diverse the curriculum, the currency of this realm is academic social control theory essay. Also, truancy aside, social control theory essay the available measures of school-related activities, grade point average appears to be the best predictor of delinquency. Good students are likely to aspire to further education and are unlikely to commit delinquent acts or to get into difficulties with the police. Grade point average accounts for the correlation between IQ test scores and delinquency.

Put another way, IQ affects delinquency through its effect of grades. It has no direct effect on delinquency. This means that the ancient idea that, other things equal, intelligent people are better able to appreciate the social control theory essay of their acts is not supported by the data; instead, the data suggest that the correspondence between achievement and prospects on one side and delinquency on the other is just what one would expect from rational actors, whatever their level of intelligence.

In television courtrooms, one task of the prosecutor is to establish that the defendant had the opportunity to commit the crime of which he or she is accused. Crimes are events that take place at a given point in time. Conditions necessary for their accomplishment may or may not be present. Control theorists, like most other theorists, have seized on this fact and tried to incorporate the notion of opportunity into their explanation of crime. More than one researcher has found that adolescents with jobs are more rather than less likely to be delinquent.

Also, counts of the hours of the day the adolescent is doing an activity that is inconsistent with delinquent acts have proved disappointing. There are two problems with the concept of involvement, social control theory essay. First, it is based on a misconception of the nature of crime.

Most criminal acts, perhaps especially those available to adolescents, require only seconds or minutes for their completion—the pull of the trigger, a swing of the fist, a barked command, a jimmied door, a grab from a rack or showcase. This fact allows the commission of large numbers of criminal acts by a single offender in a short period of time. It also makes ridiculous attempts to estimate the average number of offenses committed by individual offenders in an extended period of time.

Because opportunities social control theory essay crimes are ubiquitous, the hope of preventing them by otherwise occupying the potential offender has proved vain. A second problem with this concept is that it neglects the fact that opportunities social control theory essay crime reside to a large extent in the eye of the beholder. Social control theory essay conditions matter, social control theory essay, but so do the perceptions of actors.

Control theory claims that people differ in the strength of their bonds to society. It therefore predicts that people who are strongly bonded are less likely to engage in activities that provide opportunities for delinquency and are less likely to see them should they arise. The role of beliefs in the causation of delinquency is a matter of considerable dispute.

Some social scientists argue that they are of central importance. Others ignore them, suggesting that they are nothing more than words that reflect and justify past behavior but are in no way responsible for it.

Control theory rejects the view that beliefs are positive causes of delinquency, that offenders are somehow living up to their beliefs when they commit delinquent acts.

Control theory is, however, compatible with the view that some beliefs prevent delinquency while others allow it. Perhaps the principal benefit of the study of beliefs is that they help us understand how the other bonds work to prevent delinquency.

Individuals who disagree are more likely to report delinquent acts. What can be said about the factual accuracy of this belief? Do delinquents know the truth while non-delinquents have been systematically misinformed? The answer appears to be that both delinquents and non-delinquents are correct, social control theory essay, at least from their point of view.

In the long term, offenders are typically caught and, in various ways, punished. A short-term orientation reflects a lack of commitment and is therefore conducive to delinquency. A long-term orientation is indicative of commitment and prevents delinquency. All of this teaches two lessons: 1 Manipulating beliefs without changing the social control theory essay on which they are based is unlikely to reduce the level of social control theory essay, and 2 changing actual levels of law enforcement efficiency is unlikely to change the beliefs that allow and disallow criminal conduct.

The intellectual underpinnings of social control theory may be social control theory essay in the 17th-century work of Thomas Hobbes. In his famous book Leviathan Hobbes described a set of basic assumptions social control theory essay human nature and the origins of civil society, social control theory essay. Hobbes believed that humans naturally seek personal advantage without regard for the rights or concerns of others. They can continue in a state of war, or they can establish a system of laws and a government empowered to punish those who resort to force and fraud in pursuit of their private interests.

Given the choice between war and peace, rational people choose to social control theory essay to government authority in return for the safety of their persons and property. People consider the costs and benefits of crime and act accordingly.

The important costs of crime are those exacted by the state—which has the power to deprive citizens of life, liberty, and property. The content of the criminal law is not problematic, social control theory essay. There is consensus that the use of force and fraud for private purposes is illegitimate. Crime is real. It is a not a matter of definition; it is not a social construction that may vary from time to time and place to place, social control theory essay.

As we have seen, social control theory accepts choice and consensus. People are not forced by unusual needs or desires to commit criminal acts. Belief in the validity of the core of the criminal law is shared by everyone, social control theory essay.


The Social Control Theory : A Sociological Perspective | Cram


social control theory essay


Essay The Social Of Social Control Theory. Out of all the sociological and psychological theories listed in chapter 2 of our textbook, I think the social control theory has the most merit. The theory is based on four components of social bond. These components are what keep people from committing crimes. Social Control Theory vs. Social Learning Theory. Abstract Social control theory and social learning theory are two theories that suggest why deviant behavior is chosen to be acted upon by some individuals and not others. In short, Hirschi’s social bond theory emphasized all people are potential criminals, however, people will conform the norm or obey the law because they do not want to destroy the bondings with others. Criticisms. There are few criticisms on social control theory.