Thanksgiving History | Plimoth Plantation

 

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Jul 08,  · Andrew Scrivani for The New York Times. Essential Thanksgiving. Your guide to the year's most important meal, with our best recipes, videos, techniques and tricks. Thanksgiving Day is a national holiday celebrated on various dates in Canada, the United States, some of the Caribbean islands, and Liberia. It began as a day of giving thanks and sacrifice for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding beralpasa.cfed by: Countries, Canada, Grenada, . Thanksgiving Day did not become an official holiday until Northerners dominated the federal government. While sectional tensions prevailed in the midth century, the editor of the popular magazine Godey’s Lady’s Book, Sarah Josepha Hale, campaigned for a national Thanksgiving Day to.


First Thanksgiving


Because it is not strictly a religious festival, there are no liturgical colors associated with the day. National holidays can be defined as those commemorations that a nation's government has deemed thanksgiving article enough to warrant inclusion in the list of official public holidays. They tend to honor a person thanksgiving article event that has been critical in the development of the nation and its identity, thanksgiving article.

Such people and events usually thanksgiving article values and traditions shared by a large portion of the citizenry, thanksgiving article. In the United States, patiotism and identity were nurtured from the beginning of the nation by the very act of celebrating new events in holidays like the Fourth of July, battle anniversaries, and other notable occasions. This was even more important in the country's early years because the nation was composed of people from a variety of backgrounds and traditions.

The invention of traditions and the marking of important occasions in thanksgiving article life of the new nation were crucial in creating a shared bond of tradition and a sense of common belonging to a relatively new homeland through the shared experience of celebrating common holidays, thanksgiving article.

As more and diverse peoples migrated to the United Thanksgiving article, it became even more important to thanksgiving article significant annual anniversaries, and Thanksgiving soon became one of the nation's most important shared celebrations. The autumn harvest has always been a cause for celebration. The Romans had their Cerealia, held each year on October 4 in honor of the grain goddess, Ceres.

They offered her the first fruits of the harvest and thanksgiving article through the field, participating in games and sports and sharing a huge thanksgiving feast.

They hung the walls of the small huts built for this festival with apples, grapes, corn, pomegranates, and other fruits and vegetables. All of these early thanksgiving ceremonies were social as well as religious occasions, providing those whose work in the fields was completed with an opportunity to sing, dance, thanksgiving article, feast, and play games.

In America, there were at least two thanksgiving celebrations before the one that took place at Plymouth in Ina group of English settlers led by Captain George Popham met with a group of Abnaki Indians near the mouth of the Kennebec River to share a harvest feast and prayer meeting. On December 14,there was a celebration in Virginia led by Captain John Woodleaf and thirty-nine colonists who had traveled up the James River from Jamestown to a place called Berkeley Hundred, where they went ashore and gave thanksgiving article. They were joined in their three-day feast by Massasoit, the chief of the Wampanoag tribe, and about ninety of his fellow tribesmen.

Only fifty of the original Pilgrims had survived the first winter, and those who did owed their survival to the Indians. During the next several years, thanksgiving article, no one specific day was set aside in the American colonies for giving thanks. A day would be named when there was a special reason to be thankful, such as a bumper crop or escape from an epidemic. It was largely due to the efforts of a women's magazine editor named Sarah Hale that Thanksgiving came to be a national holiday.

She petitioned presidents and government officials for more than twenty years to establish a national day of thanksgiving. President Franklin D. But the tradition was already so well established that the change created an uproar. Finally, thanksgiving article, Congress ruled in that the fourth Thursday in November would be the legal federal holiday, thanksgiving article.

Canadians celebrate their Thanksgiving Day on the second Monday in October. Today, Thanksgiving is a time for family reunions, most of which thanksgiving article around the preparation of an elaborate meal featuring TURKEY and a dozen or so accompanying dishes. Although some people go to thanksgiving article church services on Thanksgiving Day, thanksgiving article, far more line the streets to watch PARADES or sit in front of the television watching football games.

At one time, people believed that the corn spirit or corn goddess ran from plant to plant, thanksgiving article, just ahead of the advancing sickles. Sometimes farmers "caught" the corn spirit by making the last sheaf into a doll, who was believed to possess magical powers.

The corn doll was then decorated with ribbons or crowned with a wreath of flowers and hung up on the farmhouse wall until it was time to plow for the next year's crops, thanksgiving article.

Then the farmer's wife would cut the doll into pieces and bring it to the fields as food for the horses; or she would burn it, thanksgiving article, and the farmer would plow the ashes back into the earth as a thanksgiving article of ensuring a plentiful harvest. In some places, the corn doll would be thrown thanksgiving article a river in the hope that it would guarantee sufficient rainfall. At the traditional English festival known as Harvest Home, the thanksgiving article of the corn was piled on a cart decorated with flowers, ribbons, and green branches.

A "lord" and "lady" of the harvest were chosen to ride in the cart, and as it passed, people hiding in the bushes would throw buckets of water at it-another rain charm. In America thanksgiving article, small dolls made thanksgiving article corn husks are a popular household decoration at Thanksgiving.

Cornucopia Also known as the "horn of plenty," the cornucopia is not only a harvest symbol but a symbol of early America, with its seemingly endless supply of game and produce. In ancient Rome, a goat's horn overflowing with fruit and thanksgiving article foods was an attribute of both Flora, the goddess of flowers, and Fortuna, the goddess of fortune.

In Greece, it was associated with Amalthea, a nymph in the form of a goat who nursed the infant Zeus in a cave on the island of Crete. According to legend, Amalthea broke off one of her horns and, filling it with fruits and flowers, gave it to Zeus. To show his gratitude, Zeus set the goat's image in the sky as the constellation Capricorn, thanksgiving article. In another version of the myth, the grateful young Zeus breaks off a goat's thanksgiving article and gives it to Amalthea, his foster mother, telling her it will supply thanksgiving article with whatever she needs.

Cornucopia-from the Latin cornu copiae, meaning "horn of plenty"-is a longstanding symbol of fruitfulness and abundance, thanksgiving article. Americans often place cornucopia baskets on their Thanksgiving tables to symbolize their gratitude for the feast they are about to share.

Indian Corn The Pilgrims didn't know about corn when they first arrived in America, but the Indians showed them how to plant the kernels and fertilize the mounds with fish. Because they didn't want the Indians to know how many of the original settlers had died that first winter, thanksgiving article, the Pilgrims planted corn over the graves to disguise them, thanksgiving article. The ears of maize or Indian corn, as it was known, were small and knobby, with red, thanksgiving article, yellow, blue, thanksgiving article, green, and blackish kernels.

Sometimes they were roasted and eaten, but more often they were dried and pounded into cornmeal for cornbread and cornmeal thanksgiving article. While it is not thanksgiving article of the traditional Thanksgiving menu, Indian corn is a favorite household decoration at this time of year.

Although corn is an ancient symbol of fertility, prosperity, and growth, the irregularly shaped and colored Indian corn is a more recent American symbol of the harvest. Parades In ancient Greece and Rome, harvest celebrations often included farm wagons decorated with sheaves of grain. Today, many Americans celebrate Thanksgiving with parades featuring floats reminiscent of these early harvest wagons.

In fact, thanksgiving article, some scholars see the harvest queens who thanksgiving article in modern-day Thanksgiving parades as the descendants of the pagan corn goddesses.

The oldest Thanksgiving Day parade, which dates back tois the one held by Gimbel's department store in Philadelphia. Thanksgiving article department store in New York held its first parade in Today the Macy's parade thanksgiving article characters from story books, movies, television, and toyland.

In recent years, it has attracted more than three million spectators, thanksgiving article, while another sixty million Americans have watched it on television.

In Hollywood, television and movie stars parade through the streets on floats, thanksgiving article. Pilgrims Originally the Pilgrims were called Puritans because they wanted to "purify" the Church of England, which they felt was too concerned with ritual and with telling people what to believe.

They met secretly in homes to study the Bible and listen to sermons. Those who were prepared to leave the Church of England and set up their own church-without bishops, altars, candles, thanksgiving article, incense, or organ music- were known as Separatists, thanksgiving article.

Because the English church and government were one and the same in the s, separating from the thanksgiving article was considered an act of treason. One group of Separatists, under the thanksgiving article of William Brewster, thanksgiving article, decided to move to Holland. They lived in Leyden for ten years, but worried about their children forgetting English language and customs.

Thanksgiving article or sixty of these, thanksgiving article, along with other passengers who had their own reasons for wanting to leave in all-decided to make the journey to the New World on board the Mayflower, thanksgiving article. They have tall black hats with broad brims and a silver buckle in front; their shoes have silver buckles as well.

The women and girls usually wear long dresses in drab colors with white aprons and caps. In reality, thanksgiving article, however, Pilgrim women often wore red, purple, bright blue, or green dresses colored with vegetable dyes. The ornamental buckles seen on the Pilgrims' hats and shoes weren't introduced until later in the seventeenth century, thanksgiving article.

The figures of Pilgrims seen at Thanksgiving today are a symbol of the bravery and determination of America's earliest settlers. They are often portrayed as malefemale couples because they represent the "parents" of the American people. Plymouth Rock Perhaps the most famous landmark in America today is the granite boulder on which the Pilgrims first stepped when they came ashore at Plymouth, Massachusetts.

But until just before the American Revolution, it was simply another rock. During the next century it was moved first to Plymouth's town square, then to a local museum known as Pilgrim Hall. Finally it was brought back to the waterfront and placed under a stone canopy with a box believed to contain Pilgrim bones. Eventually, to prevent souvenir-hunters from chipping off pieces, the rock was placed in a pit surrounded by an iron thanksgiving article, with a portico overhead to shelter visitors from the weather.

Whether or not the Pilgrims actually stepped ashore on this rock is not known with any certainty. Apparently there was a huge boulder thanksgiving article forty feet from shore along the sandy coast of Massachusetts in But since there is no documentation about exactly where the Pilgrims landed, there is no way of knowing whether this rock provided them with a stepping-stone, thanksgiving article.

Some historians have theorized that the Pilgrims used the rock as a landmark to help guide them into the harbor. Plymouth Rock has long symbolized America's freedom. During the Revolutionary War, the residents of Plymouth took it as a thanksgiving article omen rather than a coincidence when the rock split in two while being pried from its bed for use as a thanksgiving article for a liberty pole: Shortly after, the colonies officially split from England, thanksgiving article.

The two halves were eventually reunited under a protective canopy at the foot of Coles Hill, where it now sits. Although originally estimated to have measured twelve feet in diameter and to have weighed seven or eight tons, over the years the rock has been whittled down considerably by souvenir-hunters and the difficulties of moving it. Turkey There is no record of what was eaten at the Pilgrims' first Thanksgiving feast.

The Indians who had been sent out to hunt probably returned with wild geese and ducks, but there is no way of knowing whether they brought back a turkey-a large, stately bird with greenish-bronze feathers that was native to North America.

Because of their size twenty to thirty pounds and because they were relatively easy to catch, thanksgiving article, however, wild turkeys quickly became an important source of food for the early American settlers. Some say the turkey was named by the late sixteenth-century European explorers, who confused thanksgiving article with the European turkey cock, a completely different bird.

Others claim that the word comes from the Hebrew tukki, meaning "big bird," which is what the doctor on Columbus's ship shouted when he saw one for the first time, thanksgiving article. In any case, thanksgiving article, the turkey did not become an American Thanksgiving tradition until the s. After World War II, an aggressive marketing campaign by the poultry industry and the development of larger, hybrid turkeys combined to make the stuffed bird a symbol of American abundance and the traditional main course at Thanksgiving dinner.

The custom of snapping the turkey's wishbone, bringing luck to the person who gets the larger half, can be traced back to the Romans. It was certainly a well-established tradition in England by the time the Pilgrims brought it to America, thanksgiving article. Some word historians believe that the bone-snapping custom gave rise to the popular expression, "to get a lucky break.

After the United States won its independence, Congress debated the choice of a national bird. Benjamin Franklin thought the bald eagle was a bird of "bad moral character" and advocated the turkey as a thanksgiving article, original Native of North America. New York: Seabury Press, Biedermann, Hans. New York: Meridian Books,

 

Thanksgiving - HISTORY

 

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Jul 08,  · Andrew Scrivani for The New York Times. Essential Thanksgiving. Your guide to the year's most important meal, with our best recipes, videos, techniques and tricks. Uplifting Thanksgiving Articles "Cranberry Sauce and Pumpkin Pie,".The Gem, November 21, , pp. On actually thanking God on Thanksgiving day. "Pray with Thanksgiving," The Joyful Heart, November 24, Thanksgiving is the seasoning that makes our prayers edible to God. Thanksgiving Day is a national holiday celebrated on various dates in Canada, the United States, some of the Caribbean islands, and Liberia. It began as a day of giving thanks and sacrifice for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding beralpasa.cfed by: Countries, Canada, Grenada, .